Ion conducting membranes for aqueous flow battery systems
Flow batteries, aqueous flow batteries in particular, are the most promising candidates for stationary energy storage to realize the wide utilization of renewable energy sources. To meet the requirement of large-scale energy storage, there has been a growing interest in aqueous flow batteries, especially in novel redox couples and flow-type systems. However, the development of aqueous flow battery technologies is at an early stage and their performance can be further improved. As a key component of a flow battery, the membrane has a significant effect on battery performance. Currently, the membranes used in aqueous flow battery technologies are very limited. In this feature article, we first cover the application of porous membranes in vanadium flow battery technology, and then the membranes in most recently reported aqueous flow battery systems. Meanwhile, we hope that this feature article will inspire more efforts to design and prepare membranes with outstanding performance and stability, and then accelerate the development of flow batteries for large scale energy storage applications.