Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance work on Wednesday 27th March 2019 from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (GMT).

During this time our website performance may be temporarily affected. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.


Issue 5, 2018
Previous Article Next Article

Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment

Author affiliations

Abstract

In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies. Due to the ubiquity of non-equilibrium steady states in living systems, the development of a theory for the effects of external fluctuations on chemical systems has been a longstanding focus of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory of stochastic pumping has provided insight into how a non-equilibrium steady-state can be formed and maintained in the presence of dissipation and kinetic asymmetry. This effort has been greatly enhanced by a confluence of experimental and theoretical work on synthetic molecular machines designed explicitly to harness external energy to drive non-equilibrium transport and self-assembly.

Graphical abstract: Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 29 Aug 2017, accepted on 05 Dec 2017 and first published on 05 Dec 2017


Article type: Feature Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC06683J
Citation: Chem. Commun., 2018,54, 427-444

  •   Request permissions

    Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment

    R. D. Astumian, Chem. Commun., 2018, 54, 427
    DOI: 10.1039/C7CC06683J

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements