Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: bottlenecks and future directions
In this feature article, we discuss in detail developmental bottleneck issues in Raman spectroscopy in its early stages and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the past four decades. We divide SERS research into two different directions with different targets. Fundamental research is extending the limits of SERS to single-molecule, sub-nanometer resolution and femtosecond processes. In contrast, practical research is expanding the range of applications with the aim of providing versatile analytical tools for surface, materials, life, environmental, forensic and food sciences and also commercial instruments for use in daily life. In the second direction there have continually been many complex bottlenecks to be overcome. We attempt to enumerate the key issues in detail and also describe the achievements made to overcome the bottlenecks. In the last, but not least important part, we discuss the remaining bottlenecks and possible strategies for overcoming them to enable SERS to be an even more powerful and versatile technique.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Commemorating Michael Faraday (1791-1867)