Hybrid MoSe2–indocyanine green nanosheets as a highly efficient phototheranostic agent for photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal cancer therapy†
Phototheranostic technology based on photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and photothermal therapy (PTT) is emerging as a powerful tool for tumor theranostic applications. For effective tumor eradication, a novel PAI/PTT theranostic nanoagent with an excellent optical absorption and photothermal capability is highly desired. Herein, we present a new PAI/PTT nanohybrid named sMoSe2–ICG NSs by covalently conjugating aminated indocyanine green (ICG) onto a single layer of molybdenum selenide nanosheets (sMoSe2 NSs). We first validate the sMoSe2–ICG NS agent for the PAI and PTT effect in vitro and then use it for highly-sensitive PAI guided highly efficient tumor PTT in vivo. The sMoSe2–ICG NS hybrid possesses several advantages for PAI/PTT applications: (1) the sMoSe2–ICG NSs have strong absorbance in the broad near-infrared (NIR) region, enabling a highly efficient PAI/PTT theranostic effect and the selection of the most widely used excitation wavelength of 808 nm for PTT; (2) the photothermal ability of ICG in sMoSe2–ICG NSs is augmented due to ICG aggregation induced fluorescence quenching and the re-absorbance of ICG fluorescence by sMoSe2 NSs, which further enhances the PAI/PTT theranostic effect. (3) The characteristic absorption peak of sMoSe2–ICG NSs is red-shifted compared to free ICG, resulting in a higher PAI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in vivo. Thus, combined with the good stability, high biocompatibility and minimal toxicity properties, the obtained sMoSe2–ICG NSs hybrid has bright prospects for use in future PAI/PTT clinical applications.