Recent advances in toner-based microfluidic devices for bioanalytical applications
Toner-based microfluidic devices have emerged since 2003 as promising platforms for bioanalytical applications. The simplicity of the fabrication process, the low instrumental requirements and the global affordability of required consumables are some key features that encourage the use of this kind of substrate for chemical and biochemical assays. This review aims to cover the recent advances regarding the fabrication procedures involving the laser printing of microfluidic devices on polyester films as well as the association of printing, laser cutting and lamination to create devices assembled in a multi-layer architecture. Examples of applications involving electrophoresis, mixing, concentration, purification, extraction, amplification, rotation-driven fluidic transport, enzyme-linked immunoassays and colorimetric lateral assays on toner-based platforms will be presented and discussed. Lastly, the versatility of the toner-based fabrication technique to enable the production of hydrophobic valves, droplet generator devices, and mimetic vein-on-a-chip and hybrid devices will also be covered.