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Issue 30, 2018
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A new analytical method for lead determination in atmospheric particulate matter by a combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction and supramolecular solvent preconcentration

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Abstract

Air pollution by lead, even in small concentrations, can cause serious health effects. In the atmosphere this element can generally be found in particulate matter (PM), and in general in small concentrations. This work proposes the development of an analytical method for lead determination in inhaled PM based on ultrasound-assisted extraction with subsequent supramolecular solvent based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (SM-DLLME), using reverse micelles of dodecanoic acid as an extractor dispersed in a continuous phase of tetrahydrofuran (THF)/water. The rich phase was then analyzed by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) coupled on-line to a flow injection analysis (FIA). An analytical curve in the range of 15.0–200.0 μg L−1 (R2 = 0.999), an enrichment factor of 18.1 times and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) equal to 3.7 and 11.3 μg L−1, respectively, were obtained. The accuracy of the method was successfully attested by comparing with EDX analysis through the paired t-test at a confidence level of 95%. The amount of lead determined in the samples of PM collected in different environments varied from 19.3 to 94.8 ng m−3.

Graphical abstract: A new analytical method for lead determination in atmospheric particulate matter by a combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction and supramolecular solvent preconcentration

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Publication details

The article was received on 14 May 2018, accepted on 28 Jun 2018 and first published on 29 Jun 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8AY01092G
Citation: Anal. Methods, 2018,10, 3745-3753
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    A new analytical method for lead determination in atmospheric particulate matter by a combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction and supramolecular solvent preconcentration

    A. Beal, F. Garcia de Almeida, C. A. B. Moreira, I. M. Santos, S. M. M. Curti, L. D. Martins and C. R. T. Tarley, Anal. Methods, 2018, 10, 3745
    DOI: 10.1039/C8AY01092G

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