Integrated paper-based microfluidic devices for point-of-care testing
As a rapidly developing field, paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs) are expected to have profound implications, especially for in vitro diagnosis. In particular, integrated μPADs, with the merits of capillary-driven force, cost effectiveness, mass production and ease of use, are emerging as ideal tools for personal diagnosis; sample collection/pretreatment, signal transduction and results output can be simplified into one μPAD with minimal need for complex operation. In this review, we emphasize the latest developments of integrated μPADs and highlight the accomplishments and challenges of each component, including sample collection/pretreatment, signal transduction and amplification, and results output. Moreover, we give an overview of the growing trend of novel integrated μPADs and analyze existing challenges as well as potential directions for integrated μPADs for point-of-care testing (POCT).