Rapid screening of anti-tumor metastasis drugs targeting integrin macrophage antigen-1 using immobilized cell capillary electrophoresis†
In this research a method called immobilized cell capillary electrophoresis (ICCE) was established under approximately physiological conditions for rapid screening of anti-tumor metastasis drugs targeting integrin macrophage antigen-1 (MAC-1). In this method, separation and purification of the target receptors on cell membranes was unnecessary, thus, maintaining their natural conformation and bioactivity. MAC-1-, CD11b-, or CD18-overexpressing HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney) were cultured and immobilized on the inner wall of capillaries as stationary phase, and their interactions with lactosyl derivative Gu-4 (positive control)/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; negative control) were studied using ICCE. Using this method, 29 phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanches Herba were screened, and the binding kinetic parameters (K, ka, kd, and k′) of active compounds were calculated, and the specific subunits of MAC-1 were determined. Then, molecular docking studies were performed to discover the direct interaction sites between active compounds and MAC-1, and the order of Glide-calculated Emodel value obtained from the molecular docking study is consistent with that of the binding constants obtained using ICCE. Finally, pharmaceutical efficacy assays in vitro and in vivo were carried out to show that the anti-tumor metastasis activity of the active compound had better pharmaceutical efficacy and lower toxic side effects. The method was verified to be valid and practical for further use, and it is expected that it will be transferred to capillary array electrophoresis for use in high-throughput drug screening.