DNA methylation detection: recent developments in bisulfite free electrochemical and optical approaches
DNA methylation is one of the significant epigenetic modifications involved in mammalian development as well as in the initiation and progression of various diseases like cancer. Over the past few decades, an enormous amount of research has been carried out for the quantification of DNA methylation in the mammalian genome. Earlier, most of these methodologies used bisulfite treatment. However, the low conversion, false reading, longer assay time and complex chemical reaction are the common limitations of this method that hinder their application in routine clinical screening. Thus, as an alternative to bisulfite conversion-based DNA methylation detection, numerous bisulfite-free methods have been proposed. In this regard, electrochemical biosensors have gained much attention in recent years for being highly sensitive yet cost-effective, portable, and simple to operate. On the other hand, biosensors with optical readouts enable direct real time detection of biological molecules and are easily adaptable to multiplexing. Incorporation of electrochemical and optical readouts into bisulfite free DNA methylation analysis is paving the way for the translation of this important biomarker into standard patient care. In this review, we provide a critical overview of recent advances in the development of electrochemical and optical readout based bisulfite free DNA methylation assays.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles