A glucose/O2 fuel cell-based self-powered biosensor for probing a drug delivery model with self-diagnosis and self-evaluation†
Extending the application of self-powered biosensors (SPB) into the drug delivery field is highly desirable. Herein, a robust glucose/O2 fuel cell-based biosensor is successfully integrated with a targeted drug delivery system to create a self-sustained and highly compact drug delivery model with self-diagnosis and self-evaluation (DDM-SDSE). The glucose/O2 fuel cell-based biosensor firstly performs its diagnostic function by detecting the biomarkers of cancer. The drug delivery system attached on the anode of the glucose/O2 fuel cell can be released during the diagnostic operation to guarantee the occurrence of a therapy process. Accompanied by the therapy process, the glucose/O2 fuel cell-based biosensor can also act as an evaluation component to dynamically monitor the therapy efficacy by analyzing drug-induced apoptotic cells. In addition, the use of an abiotic catalyst largely improves the stability of the glucose/O2 fuel cell without sacrificing the output performance, further ensuring long-time dynamic evaluation as well as highly sensitive diagnosis and evaluation in this DDM-SDSE. Therefore, the present study not only expands the application of SPBs but also offers a promising in vitro “diagnosis-therapy-evaluation” platform to acquire valuable information for clinical cancer therapy.