Direct synthesis of aryl-annulated [c]carbazoles by gold(i)-catalysed cascade reaction of azide-diynes and arenes†
The gold-catalysed annulation of conjugated alkynes bearing an azido group with arenes gave annulated [c]carbazoles. Using benzene, pyrrole, and indole derivatives as the nucleophiles, benzo[c]-, pyrrolo[2,3-c]-, and indolo[2,3-c]carbazoles were produced, respectively. The reaction proceeded through pyrrole and benzene ring construction accompanied by the formation of two carbon–carbon and one carbon–nitrogen bond and the cleavage of two aromatic C–H bonds. The mechanism of the reaction with pyrrole was investigated by density functional theory calculations. N,N′-dimethylated indolo[2,3-c]carbazole showed dual ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared and fluorescence spectral changes upon electrolysis.