SnS/C nanocomposites for high-performance sodium ion battery anodes†
Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as one of the most promising types of batteries, beyond lithium-ion batteries, for large-scale energy storage applications. However, their deployment hinges on the development of new anode materials, since it has been shown that many important anode materials employed in lithium ion batteries, such as graphite and silicon, are inadequate for sodium-ion batteries. We have simply prepared novel SnS/C nanocomposites through a top-down approach as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Their electrochemical performance has been significantly improved when compared to bare SnS, especially in terms of cycling stability and rate capabilities. SnS/C nanocomposites exhibit excellent capacity retention, at various current rates, and deliver capacities as high as 400 mA h g−1 even at the high current density of 800 mA g−1 (2C). Ex situ transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and operando X-ray absorption near edge structure studies have been performed in order to unravel the reaction mechanism of the SnS/C nanocomposites.