Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 36, 2018, Issue in Progress
Previous Article Next Article

Waste snail shell derived heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production by the transesterification of soybean oil

Author affiliations

Abstract

A waste snail shell (Pila spp.) derived catalyst was used to produce biodiesel from soybean oil at room temperature for the first time. The snail shell was calcined at different temperatures of 400–1000 °C. The synthesized catalysts underwent XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, FTIR, XRF, TG/DTA and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm (BET) analysis. The major component CaO was determined at a calcination temperature of 900 °C as depicted in the XRD results. 100% conversion of soybean oil to methyl ester biodiesel was obtained, as confirmed by 1H NMR. A biodiesel yield of 98% was achieved under optimized reaction conditions such as a calcination temperature of 900 °C, a catalyst loading of 3 wt%, a reaction time of 7 h and a methanol to oil ratio of 6 : 1, and biodiesel conversion was confirmed by FT-NMR and IR spectroscopies. A total of 9 fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified in the synthesized biodiesel by the retention time and fragmentation pattern data of GC-MS analysis. The catalyst was recycled 8 times without appreciable loss in its catalytic activity. A high biodiesel yield of 98% was obtained under these optimised conditions. The catalyst has the advantage of being a waste material, therefore it is easily prepared, cost free, highly efficient, biogenic, labor effective and environmentally friendly, making it a potential candidate as a green catalyst for low cost production of biodiesel at an industrial scale.

Graphical abstract: Waste snail shell derived heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production by the transesterification of soybean oil

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
19 Mar 2018
Accepted
01 May 2018
First published
04 Jun 2018

This article is Open Access

RSC Adv., 2018,8, 20131-20142
Article type
Paper

Waste snail shell derived heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production by the transesterification of soybean oil

I. B. Laskar, K. Rajkumari, R. Gupta, S. Chatterjee, B. Paul and L. Rokhum, RSC Adv., 2018, 8, 20131
DOI: 10.1039/C8RA02397B

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements