Natural 6-hydroxy-chromanols and -chromenols: structural diversity, biosynthetic pathways and health implications†
We present the first comprehensive and systematic review on the structurally diverse toco-chromanols and -chromenols found in photosynthetic organisms, including marine organisms, and as metabolic intermediates in animals. The focus of this work is on the structural diversity of chromanols and chromenols that result from various side chain modifications. We describe more than 230 structures that derive from a 6-hydroxy-chromanol- and 6-hydroxy-chromenol core, respectively, and comprise di-, sesqui-, mono- and hemiterpenes. We assort the compounds into a structure–activity relationship with special emphasis on anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities of the congeners. This review covers the literature published from 1970 to 2017.