Current progress in production of biopolymeric materials based on cellulose, cellulose nanofibers, and cellulose derivatives
Cellulose has attracted considerable attention as the strongest potential candidate feedstock for bio-based polymeric material production. During the past decade, significant progress in the production of biopolymers based on different cellulosic forms has been achieved. This review highlights the most recent advances and developments in the three main routes for the production of cellulose-based biopolymers, and discusses their scope and applications. The use of cellulose fibers, nanocellulose, and cellulose derivatives as fillers or matrices in biocomposite materials is an efficient biosustainable alternative for the production of high-quality polymer composites and functional polymeric materials. The use of cellulose-derived monomers (glucose and other platform chemicals) in the synthesis of sustainable biopolymers and functional polymeric materials not only provides viable replacements for most petroleum-based polymers but also enables the development of novel polymers and functional polymeric materials. The present review describes the current status of biopolymers based on various forms of cellulose and the scope of their importance and applications. Challenges, promising research trends, and methods for dealing with challenges in exploitation of the promising properties of different forms of cellulose, which are vital for the future of the global polymeric industry, are discussed. Sustainable cellulosic biopolymers have potential applications not only in the replacement of existing petroleum-based polymers but also in cellulosic functional polymeric materials for a range of applications from electrochemical and energy-storage devices to biomedical applications.