Mechanism in the existent difference in form of wogonin/wogonoside between plasma and intestine/liver in rats
Wogonin (WO) and its glucuronide, wogonoside (WG) exhibit various beneficial bioactivities that may have potential for the development of novel drugs. In this study, we determined their pharmacokinetic characteristics in rats after intragastric administration of WO and intraportal vein injection of WG. WG was the predominant form in the portal vein and body plasma, and in bile; WO was detected only in the small intestine and liver. WG is a substrate of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 1, 2, 3, and 4, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 and OATP1B3. Metabolism studies indicated that WG formation and WO decrease had similar CLint values in rat intestine S9 (RIS9) and rat liver microsome (RLM), and that the hydrolysis rate of WG in RIS9 and rat liver S9 (RLS9) was fast. Thus, WG could be excreted into the intestinal tract by MRP2, and transported into mesenteric blood by MRP1, 3, and 4. OATP2B1 and OATP1B3 mediated the hepatic uptake of WG and MRPs mediated WG efflux to the bile and circulation. The high transport capability of MRPs for WG and the fast hydrolysis in the small intestine and liver may be responsible for the presence of WO in these tissues.