Pd–Ru core–shell nanoparticles with tunable shell thickness for active and stable oxygen evolution performance†
For Ru nanoparticles to be effective oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts an approach is needed that stabilizes Ru while retaining high activity. Here, we present a synthesis for Pd–Ru core–shell nanoparticles with tunable shell thicknesses between 0.3–1.2 nm. The Pd core stabilizes the Ru shell to increase the stability by up to 10×, while maintaining the high current densities of pure Ru nanoparticles. Results show that the activity and stability of the nanoparticles is highly dependent on the nanoparticle shell thickness, with thin Ru shells and full coverage of the Pd core being vital for increasing both activity and stability.