A chemical/molecular 4-input/2-output keypad lock with easy resettability based on red-emission carbon dots–Prussian blue composite film electrodes
In this work, a resettable 4-input/2-output keypad lock system based on red-emission carbon dots (rCDs) and Prussian blue (PB) modified electrodes was developed. Electrochromic PB layers were first electrochemically deposited on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. An admixture of rCDs and chitosan (Chi) was then cast on the surface of PB layers, forming rCDs-Chi/PB film electrodes. UV-vis absorption of the films was sensitive to the applied potential since the blue PB constituent of the films would be transformed to nearly colorless Prussian white (PW) at the reduction potential of −0.2 V and then from PW back to PB at the oxidation potential of 0.4 V, and the transformation between PB and PW would also influence the fluorescence emission of the rCD constituent in the films. The addition of cysteine (Cys) in the testing solution could reduce the PB in the films into PW and generate an amperometric electrocatalytic current at 0.4 V. Meanwhile, the addition of Fe3+ in solution could greatly quench the fluorescence from the rCD component in the films. Thus, the responses of UV-vis absorbance, fluorescence emission and amperometric current of the rCDs-Chi/PB film electrode system exhibited potential-, Cys- and Fe3+-responsive switching properties. Based on the aforementioned work, a combinational logic gate circuit with 3 inputs and 3 outputs was established. In particular, on the same platform, a novel chemical/molecular 4-input/2-output keypad lock with easy resettability was elaborately designed with amperometric current and fluorescence peak intensity as two different types of outputs, so that a higher security level could be achieved.