Three-dimensional GaN dodecagonal ring structures for highly efficient phosphor-free warm white light-emitting diodes
Warm and natural white light (i.e., with a correlated colour temperature <5000 K) with good colour rendition (i.e., a colour rendering index >75) is in demand as an indoor lighting source of comfortable interior lighting and mood lighting. However, for warm white light, phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) require a red phosphor instead of a commercial yellow phosphor (YAG:Ce3+), and suffer from limitations such as unavoidable energy conversion losses, degraded phosphors and high manufacturing costs. Phosphor-free WLEDs based on three-dimensional (3D) indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/gallium nitride (GaN) structures are promising alternatives. Here, we propose a new concept for highly efficient phosphor-free warm WLEDs using 3D core–shell InGaN/GaN dodecagonal ring structures, fabricated by selective area growth and the KOH wet etching method. Electrically driven, phosphor-free warm WLEDs were successfully demonstrated with a low correlated colour temperature (4500 K) and high colour rendering index (Ra = 81). From our findings, we believe that WLEDs based on dodecagonal ring structures become a platform enabling a high-efficiency warm white light-emitting source without the use of phosphors.