Mesoporous layered hexagonal platelets of Co3O4 nanoparticles with (111) facets for battery applications: high performance and ultra-high rate capability†
The thermally stable and crystalline 2D layered mesoporous hexagonal platelets of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) with (111) facets were prepared by using the template-free wet chemical synthesis approach. The high surface energy (111) facets known for a highly electroactive surface are expected to enhance the electrochemical properties, especially the rate capability. The highly crystalline Co3O4 with an average particle size of 25 nm formed a 2D mesoporous layered structure, with an average thickness of ∼40 nm, a pore size of 8–10 nm, and a specific surface area of 45.68 m2 g−1 promoting large surface confined electrochemical reaction. The 2D layered mesoporous Co3O4 exhibits a maximum specific capacity of 305 mA h g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 and 137.6 mA h g−1 at a current density of 434.8 mA g−1. The maximum energy and power densities of 32.03 W h kg−1 and 9.36 kW kg−1, respectively, are achieved from the 2D hexagonal platelets of mesoporous Co3O4 nanoparticles with (111) facets. An excellent ultra-high rate capability of ∼62% capacity retention was observed after increasing the discharge current density from ∼434.8 mA g−1 to 43 480 mA g−1. Furthermore, a cycling stability of 81.25% was achieved even after 2020 charge–discharge cycles at a current density of 12 170 mA g−1. This high performance and ultra-high rate capability could be attributed to the (111) facets ‘crystal plane’ effect of Co3O4. Our results presented here confirm that the 2D mesoporous layered hexagonal platelets of Co3O4 exhibit “battery-mimic” behaviour in an aqueous electrolyte of KOH.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Editor’s Choice: 2D Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion and International Year of the Periodic Table: Elements for Next Generation Batteries