Use of an inline dilution method to eliminate species interconversion for LC-ICP-MS based applications: focus on arsenic in urine†
Measuring arsenic in urine provides important information for clinical and epidemiological studies. While many researchers have studied ways to improve sample storage and understand why arsenic species undergo species interconversion, none have investigated inline dilution as a solution for arsenic speciation sample stability. A fast inline dilution method for AsB, DMA, MMA, As III, and As V was demonstrated in this work. Inline dilution calibrations from a single stock standard were shown to have good linearity and resulted in LODs in the single digit ppt range. Inline dilutions of 30X, 50X, and 100X resulted in 0.1 s to 1.1 s variation in retention time. Manual sample preparation resulted in poor recovery (61%) for As III over a 24 h time period, which was a direct result of As III converting to As V. Inline dilution of urine spiked with As III resulted in good recovery (101%) and reduced the species interconversion of As III to As V to ∼1%. Accuracy to NIST SRM 2669 (arsenic in frozen urine) was found to be within reported values for the five arsenic species tested for in this method.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Atomic spectrometry for the analysis of biological samples and 2018 Winter Conference of Plasma Spectrochemistry, Amelia Island, FL, US