Manufacture and characterization of anti-inflammatory liposomes from jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin phospholipid extraction
The anti-inflammation properties of marine phospholipids enriched with n-3 fatty acids contribute to anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving mediators. Functional squid-skin (SQ) liposomes were manufactured from squid-skin phospholipids, and their anti-inflammatory effects were investigated. SQ liposomes included phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and lysophosphatidylcholine (Lyso-PC), and had an approximate diameter of 100 mm. When RAW264.7 cells were treated with the SQ liposome, no (p > 0.05) cytotoxicity was observed below a concentration of 7.5 mg mL−1. An SQ-liposome pretreatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells showed decreased (p < 0.05) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The engulfment of SQ liposomes by the RAW264.7 cells resulted in lower (p < 0.05) LPS-induced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, an SQ-liposome administration ameliorated (p < 0.05) carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. SQ liposomes may act via apoptotic mimicry to elicit the resolution of inflammation and prevent chronic inflammation-related diseases.