Egg consumption may improve factors associated with glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in adults with pre- and type II diabetes
Without appropriate interventions, prediabetes is typically followed by type II diabetes. Eggs are a rich source of important nutrients including protein, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and lecithin. In this 12-week, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 42 overweight or obese individuals between the ages of 40 and 75 years with pre- and type II-diabetes were included. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either one large egg per day or an equivalent amount of egg substitute for 12 weeks. Blood samples were obtained to analyze lipid profile and biomarkers associated with glycemic control at all time points. Regular egg consumption resulted in improvements of fasting blood glucose, which was significantly (P = 0.05) reduced by 4.4% at the final visit in the egg group. Participants in the egg group had significantly (P = 0.01) lower levels of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at all visits. In the egg group, ATP-binding cassette protein family A1 (ABCA1) was significantly higher at the 6-week visit (0.78 ± 0.21 vs. 0.28 ± 0.05 mg dL−1, P < 0.001) and tended to be higher at the final visit (0.62 ± 0.11 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18 mg dL−1, P = 0.1). The mean apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1) level was also significantly higher at the final visit in the egg group compared to the control (147.43 ± 5.34 vs. 142.81 ± 5.09 mg dL−1, P = 0.01). There were no significant changes in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Daily consumption of one large egg may reduce the risk of diabetes without having any adverse effects on lipid profiles in individuals with pre- and type II diabetes.