Components in Lentinus edodes mushroom with anti-biofilm activity directed against bacteria involved in caries and gingivitis
The present study investigated the compounds present in the low molecular mass fraction of Lentinus edodes mushroom (shiitake) extract and their anti-virulence activity against oral pathogens (reference and clinical Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia strains). Oxalic, succinic, and quinic acids, and adenine, inosine, and uridine were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Their anti-biofilm production and preformed biofilm disaggregation activities were studied using commercial standard compounds at different concentrations. As regards S. mutans, the highest activity was shown by adenine at 5 mg mL−1 both in the biofilm inhibition (BI 50%) and biofilm disaggregation tests (BD 20%). Considering A. naeslundii, BI values close to 80% were registered for oxalic acid at 1 mg mL−1 and 2 mg mL−1 and BD 50% for quinic acid at 3 mg mL−1. A weaker activity was found against P. intermedia. Furthermore, different mixtures of the commercial standards were tested showing that the activity of a compound can be strongly and sometimes negatively affected by the presence of the other compounds.