Black pepper-based beverage induced appetite-suppressing effects without altering postprandial glycaemia, gut and thyroid hormones or gastrointestinal well-being: a randomized crossover study in healthy subjects
Pleiotropic effects of spices on health, particularly on glucose metabolism and energy regulation, deserve further clinical investigation into their efficacy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether consumption of a black pepper-based beverage (BPB) preload containing 20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) would exert any effect on postprandial glycaemia, appetite sensations, gut hormones, thyroid function, and gastrointestinal well-being after a white wheat bread (WWB) challenge meal containing 50 g available carbohydrates (CHO) compared to a control beverage. Sixteen healthy subjects (10 men; 6 women; 26 ± 0.9 years; BMI 22.93 ± 0.53 kg m−2) completed a randomized, crossover intervention study. The BPB's bioactive compounds were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS). Nine compounds tentatively identified in BPB include: dihydroxybenzoic acid hexoside–pentoside, decaffeoyl-acteoside, cynaroside A, apigenin 6,8-di-C-hexoside, luteolin 6-C-hexoside-8-C-rhamnoside, apigenin 8-C-hexoside-C-deoxyhexoside, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside-4′-xyloside, apigenin 7-neohesperidoside, and apigenin-8-C-arabinopyranoside-2′′-rhamnoside. Blood glucose and serum insulin responses, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were not affected during the acute intervention with BPB. Neither were effects on gastrointestinal well-being observed after BPB. However, BPB modulated overall acute appetite by lowering ‘hunger’, ‘desire to eat’, and ‘prospective consumption’, and increasing ‘satiety’ and ‘fullness’. In contrast, there were no changes in gut (peptide tyrosine-tyrosine [PYY] and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]) and thyroid (triiodothyronine [T3] and thyroxine [T4]) hormones after BPB compared to the control beverage. In conclusion, inclusion of BPB prior to the WWB challenge meal might be beneficial for appetite modulation, but we did not find supporting evidence in glycaemia, gut and thyroid hormones. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of appetite-reducing pungent spices, such as black pepper.