Single-molecule protein sensing in a nanopore: a tutorial
Proteins are the structural elements and machinery of cells responsible for a functioning biological architecture and homeostasis. Advances in nanotechnology are catalyzing key breakthroughs in many areas, including the analysis and study of proteins at the single-molecule level. Nanopore sensing is at the forefront of this revolution. This tutorial review provides readers a guidebook and reference for detecting and characterizing proteins at the single-molecule level using nanopores. Specifically, the review describes the key materials, nanoscale features, and design requirements of nanopores. It also discusses general design requirements as well as details on the analysis of protein translocation. Finally, the article provides the background necessary to understand current research trends and to encourage the identification of new biomedical applications for protein sensing using nanopores.