Chemical formation of soft metal electrodes for flexible and wearable electronics
Flexible and wearable electronics is one major technology after smartphones. It shows remarkable application potential in displays and informatics, robotics, sports, energy harvesting and storage, and medicine. As an indispensable part and the cornerstone of these devices, soft metal electrodes (SMEs) are of great significance. Compared with conventional physical processes such as vacuum thermal deposition and sputtering, chemical approaches for preparing SMEs show significant advantages in terms of scalability, low-cost, and compatibility with the soft materials and substrates used for the devices. This review article provides a detailed overview on how to chemically fabricate SMEs, including the material preparation, fabrication technologies, methods to characterize their key properties, and representative studies on different wearable applications.