Implementation of a plasticized PVC-based cation-selective optode system into a paper-based analytical device for colorimetric sodium detection†
On the example of a colorimetric sodium assay, this work demonstrates the implementation of a classical cation-exchange optode relying on an ionophore-doped plasticized PVC membrane into a paper-based analytical device (PAD). An ion-selective optode (ISO) system has been arranged into a vertically-assembled PAD (vPAD) integrating a pH-buffering function. Capillary force-driven sample liquid transportation through the paper matrix enabled pH-adjustment prior to the optical detection of the analyte cation. Functionalized paper layers with inkjet-deposited ISO membranes were combined with whole device lamination to attain a stable ion-exchange equilibrium required for the theoretical behavior of ISOs. Whole device lamination limited rapid evaporation of sample liquid on vPADs to avoid an increase of target concentration. Sigmoidal response curves between 10−5 and 1 M of Na+ at pH 5.0–7.0 have been confirmed on vPADs, following the theory defined by the cation-exchange equilibrium reaction. Finally, the influence of the cellulosic paper substrate matrix acting as a cation-exchanger on the optode response behavior has been evaluated and compared with conventional plastic film optodes.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent HOT articles