Antibody-modified hydroxyapatite surfaces for the efficient capture of bladder cancer cells in a patient's urine without recourse to any sample pre-treatment†
In this study, we describe a sensitive protocol for the detection of bladder cancer cells in a patient's urine without pre-treatment of the urine sample using antibody-modified hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro/nanostructured surfaces converted from natural seashells under mild biomineralization conditions. The mechanism based on fractal dimension-crystalline phase interactions was utilised for the enhancement of cell capture capabilities that has been verified by application in the determination of 22 urine samples from bladder cancer patients. We have established a facile and economical yet biocompatible and bioactive surface with a topography consisting of micro and nano features that provide useful binding sites for antibodies permitting the rapid identification of cancer cells during urine cytology via fluorescence observation with the naked eye.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles