Effects of bone substitute architecture and surface properties on cell response, angiogenesis, and structure of new bone
The success of bone substitutes used to repair bone defects such as critical sized defects depends on the architecture of the porous biomaterial. The architectural parameters and surface properties affect cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and eventually bone formation. The relevant parameters include pore size and porosity, pore shape and fibre orientation, surface properties, and mechanical properties. For example, small pores are preferable for cell seeding, but limit cell viability, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, the pore size and geometry affect the alignment of cells and the structure of the regenerated bone. This paper presents an overview of the effects of porous biomaterial architecture including pore size and porosity, pore shape and fibre orientation, surface topography and chemistry, and structure stiffness on cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and bone formation.