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Issue 44, 2017
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Facile synthesis and the exploration of the zinc storage mechanism of β-MnO2 nanorods with exposed (101) planes as a novel cathode material for high performance eco-friendly zinc-ion batteries

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Abstract

Aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) have emerged as promising and eco-friendly next-generation energy storage systems to substitute lithium-ion batteries. Therefore, discovering new electrode materials for ZIBs with high performance and unraveling their electrochemical reactions during Zn-ion insertion/extraction are of great interest. Here, we present, for the first time, tunnel-type β-MnO2 nanorods with exposed (101) planes, prepared via a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis within only 10 min, for use as a high performance cathode for ZIBs. In contrast to its bulk counterpart, which showed no electrochemical reactivity, the present β-MnO2 nanorod electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity of 270 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1, high rate capability (123 and 86 mA h g−1 at 528 and 1056 mA g−1, respectively), and long cycling stability (75% capacity retention with 100% coulombic efficiency at 200 mA g−1) over 200 cycles. The Zn-ion storage mechanism of the cathode was also unraveled using in situ synchrotron, ex situ X-ray diffraction, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our present study indicates that Zn intercalation occurred via a combination of solid solution and conversion reactions. During initial cycles, the β-MnO2 cathode was able to maintain its structure; however, after prolonged cycles, it transformed into a spinel structure. The present results challenge the common views on the β-MnO2 electrode and pave the way for the further development of ZIBs as cost-effective and environmentally friendly next-generation energy storage systems.

Graphical abstract: Facile synthesis and the exploration of the zinc storage mechanism of β-MnO2 nanorods with exposed (101) planes as a novel cathode material for high performance eco-friendly zinc-ion batteries

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
14 Aug 2017
Accepted
06 Oct 2017
First published
10 Oct 2017

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017,5, 23299-23309
Article type
Paper

Facile synthesis and the exploration of the zinc storage mechanism of β-MnO2 nanorods with exposed (101) planes as a novel cathode material for high performance eco-friendly zinc-ion batteries

S. Islam, M. H. Alfaruqi, V. Mathew, J. Song, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. Jo, J. P. Baboo, D. T. Pham, D. Y. Putro, Y. Sun and J. Kim, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 23299
DOI: 10.1039/C7TA07170A

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