Carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization
Carbon materials for electrodes of capacitive deionization (CDI) process are reviewed. Electrochemical cells are briefly explained by classifying into conventional, membrane and flow-electrode CDI cells. CDI performance of carbon materials, porous carbons, including activated carbons (ACs), activated carbon fibers (ACFs), templated nanoporous carbons, carbon aerogels, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphenes, have been reviewed in detail. The feasibility of CDI techniques is then discussed on the basis of the experimental results reported.