Creasing in evaporation-driven cavity collapse†
We report on crease morphology and evolution at the surface of contracting cavities embedded within elastomeric solids of varying composition (Sylgard 184: pre-polymer to crosslinker mixing ratios of 10 : 1, 12 : 1, 17.5 : 1, and 25 : 1). Cavity contraction is achieved through evaporation of an embedded 10 μL liquid droplet. In validation of recent theoretical predictions, strain-stiffening modeled via the Gent constitutive relation [Jin and Suo, JMPS, 2015, 74, 68–79] is found to govern both crease onset and crease density. Specifically, crease onset matches prediction using only experimentally-measured parameters. Neo-Hookean solids are found to prefer initiating creasing with many short creases that join to form a collapsed state with only a few creases, whereas creasing in Gent solids initiates with a few creases that propagate across the cavity surface. These experimental observations are explained by energy minimization using finite element simulation of a cylindrical crease geometry.