Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance work on Wednesday 27th March 2019 from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (GMT).

During this time our website performance may be temporarily affected. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.

Issue 4, 2017
Previous Article Next Article

Fully conjugated ladder polymers

Author affiliations


Fully conjugated ladder polymers (cLPs), in which all the backbone units on the polymer main-chain are π-conjugated and fused, have attracted great interest owing to their intriguing properties, remarkable chemical and thermal stability, and potential suitability as functional organic materials. The synthesis of cLPs can be, in general, achieved by two main strategies: single-step ladderization and post-polymerization ladderization. Although a variety of synthetic methods have been developed, the chemistry of cLPs must contend with structural defects and low solubility that prevents complete control over synthesis and structural characterization. Despite these challenges, cLPs have been used for a wide range of applications such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field effect transistors (OFETs), paralleling developments in processing methods. In this perspective, we discuss the background of historical syntheses including the most recent synthetic approaches, challenges related to the synthesis and structural characterization of well-defined cLPs with minimum levels of structural defects, cLPs' unique properties, and wide range of applications. In addition, we propose outlooks to overcome the challenges limiting the synthesis, analysis, and processing of cLPs in order to fully unlock the potential of this intriguing class of organic materials.

Graphical abstract: Fully conjugated ladder polymers

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 12 Jan 2017, accepted on 15 Feb 2017 and first published on 17 Feb 2017

Article type: Perspective
DOI: 10.1039/C7SC00154A
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2017,8, 2503-2521
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Fully conjugated ladder polymers

    J. Lee, A. J. Kalin, T. Yuan, M. Al-Hashimi and L. Fang, Chem. Sci., 2017, 8, 2503
    DOI: 10.1039/C7SC00154A

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author