Bioinspired M-13 bacteriophage-based photonic nose for differential cell recognition
A bioinspired M-13 bacteriophage-based photonic nose was developed for differential cell recognition. The M-13 bacteriophage-based photonic nose exhibits characteristic color patterns when phage bundle nanostructures, which were genetically modified to selectively capture vapor phase molecules, are structurally deformed. We characterized the color patterns of the phage bundle nanostructure in response to cell proliferation via several biomarkers differentially produced by cells, including hydrazine, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, ethanol and toluene. A specific color enables the successful identification of different types of molecular and cellular species. Our sensing technique utilized the versatile M-13 bacteriophage as a building block for fabricating bioinspired photonic crystals, which enables ease of fabrication and tunable selectivity through genetic engineering. Our simple and versatile bioinspired photonic nose could have possible applications in sensors for human health and national security, food discrimination, environmental monitoring, and portable and wearable sensors.