Templated self-assembly of one-dimensional CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystal superlattices†
Ordered self-assembled arrays or superstructures of nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted intense research interest due to their ability to translate valuable nanoscale properties to larger length scales. Numerous techniques have been explored to induce self-assembly into various superstructures. Here we investigated a simple kinetic approach to form self-assembled one-dimensional perovskite CsPbX3 (X: halides) nanocrystal arrays templated inside a pod shaped inert lead sulfate (PbSO4) scaffold. Both the solvent effects, and the self-assembly process and mechanism, are systematically studied based on a uniform procedure developed to generate CsPbX3 nanocrystal superlattices with different sizes and compositions. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) chains of NCs within a half-cylindrical pod of PbSO4 reflects a balance between solvophobicity and solvophilicity of the components. By reducing the size of NCs, we successfully realized 2D superlattices with two or three rows of close-packed CsPbBr3 NCs, in addition to single string-of-pearl type 1D assemblies. The superlattices can be assembled both inside and outside of the half-cylindrical shells by regulating the reaction conditions. The self-assembly behavior is reminiscent of the host–guest systems of organic molecular species where supramolecular recognition rules apply to give well-defined complexes. The current study opens a door for controlling self-assembled nanostructures of CsPbX3 NCs, and provides an attainable platform for future optoelectronic devices.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Editor’s Choice: Perovskite Nanomaterials and Devices