Hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion-assisted directional light emission
A novel method is presented to outcouple high spatial frequency (large-k) waves from hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) without the use of a grating. This approach relies exclusively on dispersion engineering, and enables preferential power extraction from the top or from the side of a HMM. Multilayer (ML) HMMs are shown to be better suited for lateral outcoupling, while nanowire HMMs are the most convenient choice for top outcoupling. A 6-fold increase in laterally extracted power is predicted for a dipole–HMM system with a Ag/Si ML operating at λ = 530 nm, when metallic filling ratio is changed from an unoptimized to the optimized one. This new design concept supports the cost-effective mass production of high-speed HMM optical transmitters.