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Issue 19, 2017
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Paclitaxel nanoparticle awakens immune system to fight against cancer

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A high concentration of paclitaxel (PTX) is used as an anti-tumor chemotherapy but is toxic to immune cells. At lower concentrations, PTX was found able to stimulate the anti-tumor potentials of immune cells. Thus, decreasing the cytotoxicity of PTX at high concentration while maintaining its anti-tumor stimulation to immune cells remains challenging. Herein, by employing a click condensation reaction, we rationally designed a PTX derivative, Cys(StBu)-Arg-Arg-Arg-Lys(PTX)-CBT (1), for the facile preparation of its nanoparticle 1-NP. In vitro assays indicated that, at high PTX concentrations, 1-NP showed significantly lower cytotoxicity to macrophages than did PTX, and could be efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages and consequently polarize the cells into an anti-tumor state in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo experiments further confirmed that 1-NP had a higher anti-tumor efficacy than did free PTX but lower cytotoxicity to immune cells in both immune organs and tumor sites. Our results suggest that, by using different doses of 1-NP, patients can precisely regulate the activation of the immune system for an effective anti-tumor and balanced autoimmune responses. We also envision that our strategy could lead to a combined use of immunotherapy and chemotherapy for a more efficient anti-tumor treatment in the future.

Graphical abstract: Paclitaxel nanoparticle awakens immune system to fight against cancer

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Dec 2016, accepted on 13 Apr 2017 and first published on 13 Apr 2017

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6NR09895A
Citation: Nanoscale, 2017,9, 6529-6536

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    Paclitaxel nanoparticle awakens immune system to fight against cancer

    W. Tang, J. Yang, Y. Yuan, Z. Zhao, Z. Lian and G. Liang, Nanoscale, 2017, 9, 6529
    DOI: 10.1039/C6NR09895A

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