Antibiotics from Gram-negative bacteria: a comprehensive overview and selected biosynthetic highlights
Covering: up to 2017
The overwhelming majority of antibiotics in clinical use originate from Gram-positive Actinobacteria. In recent years, however, Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly recognised as a rich yet underexplored source of novel antimicrobials, with the potential to combat the looming health threat posed by antibiotic resistance. In this article, we have compiled a comprehensive list of natural products with antimicrobial activity from Gram-negative bacteria, including information on their biosynthetic origin(s) and molecular target(s), where known. We also provide a detailed discussion of several unusual pathways for antibiotic biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria, serving to highlight the exceptional biocatalytic repertoire of this group of microorganisms.