Biosynthetic considerations of triscatechol siderophores framed on serine and threonine macrolactone scaffolds
Bacteria often produce siderophores to facilitate iron uptake. One of the most studied siderophores is enterobactin, the macrolactone trimer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-L-serine, produced by E. coli and many other enteric bacteria. Other siderophores are variants of enterobactin, with structural modifications including expansion of the tri-serine core to a tetra-serine macrolactone, substitution of L-serine with L-threonine, insertion of amino acids (i.e., Gly, L-Ala, D-Lys, D- and L-Arg, L-Orn), catechol glucosylation, and linearization of the tri-serine macrolactone core. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the biosyntheses of these enterobactin variants, placing them in contrast with the well-established biosynthesis of enterobactin.