Novel nanosensing technologies for exosome detection and profiling
Exosomes have recently emerged as highly promising cancer biomarkers because they are abundant in biofluids, carry proteins and RNA reflecting their originating cells and are stable over weeks. Beyond abundance and stability, detailed exosome analyses could be clinically useful for diagnosing and profiling cancers. Despite their clinical potential, simple, reliable and sensitive approaches for rapidly quantifying exosomes and their molecular information has been challenging. Therefore, there is a clear need to develop next-generation sensing technologies for exosome detection and analysis. In this critical review, we will describe three nanotechnology sensing platforms developed for analysis of exosomal proteins and RNAs directly from clinical specimens and discuss future development to facilitate their translation into routine clinical use.