The scale-up of continuous biphasic liquid/liquid reactions under super-heating conditions: methodology and reactor design†
Biphasic liquid/liquid reactions are commonplace, however their scale-up under super-heating conditions is not. Even more challenging efforts have to be expected in the case of a large scale continuous production process, which also includes the development at a lab scale, the selection and design of the continuous reaction equipment. However, by running chemistry above the boiling point of the solvent, the solvent selection can be widened to include green solvents and continuous processing guarantees a limited and safe footprint. Herein is reported a systematic methodology for the development and scale-up of a biphasic reaction under super-heating conditions, as well as the design of a continuous reactor column suitable for handling such conditions. Taking the alkylation of benzylamine with 1,5-dibromopentane as a model reaction, kinetic determination and fluid dynamic characterization of the biphasic media have been instrumental for a successful scale-up concept which was proven in a custom-made hastelloy reactor column.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Continuous processing and flow chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry