Human anthocyanin bioavailability: effect of intake duration and dosing
While in vitro and animal evidence supports a role for anthocyanins in human health, future opportunities in berry health benefits will rest upon evidence from clinical intervention trials. Because little is known about the behaviour of anthocyanins during long term intake in humans, several clinical design factors were examined. Urine from volunteers (n = 17) who consumed blueberry juice daily was analysed using LC-MS/MS for predicted flavonoid-based products of anthocyanins in relation to a 5-day anthocyanin-free run-in, 28 days of blueberry juice intake, a 7-day washout and two dosing regimens. Total and parent anthocyanin content in urine varied 10-fold among the 17 participants. A high 24–0 h total anthocyanin excretion was associated with high anthocyanin retention (i.e. 0 h, before blueberry juice intake). Total anthocyanin excretion was not different before and after up to 7 days of washout indicative of a slow release of anthocyanins. Urinary excretion of anthocyanins declined during the 36-day study. The 24–0 h excretion was greater for total anthocyanins but not for parent anthocyanins when daily blueberry juice was taken all at once rather than as ⅓ doses taken thrice daily. However parent anthocyanins were retained better (higher 0 h) with 1× dosing. These findings could aid in the design of clinical research on anthocyanins and health.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Berry Health Benefits Symposium