Oleuropein inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease and is widespread in the elderly population and is characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, subchondral bone sclerosis and synovitis. Oleuropein (OL), a secoiridoid, is considered as the most prevalent phenolic component in olive leaves and seeds, pulp and peel of unripe olives and has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effects on OA have not been clearly elucidated. This study aimed to assess the effect of OL on human OA chondrocytes. Human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with OL (10, 50 and 100 μM) for 2 h and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β for 24 h. The production of NO, PGE2, MMP-1, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-5 was evaluated by the Griess reaction and ELISA assays. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of COX-2, iNOS, MMP-1, MMP13, ADAMTS-5, aggrecan, and collagen-II was measured by using real-time PCR. The protein expressions of COX-2, iNOS, p65, IκB-α, JNK, p-JNK, ERK, p-ERK, p38, and p-p38 were tested by using western blot. We found that OL significantly inhibited the IL-1β-induced production of NO and PGE2; expression of COX-2, iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-5; and degradation of aggrecan and collagen-II. Furthermore, OL dramatically suppressed IL-1β-stimulated NF-κB and MAPK activation. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that OL could suppress IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p65 nuclear translocation. These results indicate that the therapeutic effect of OL on OA is accomplished through the inhibition of both NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Altogether, our findings provide the evidence to develop OL as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with OA.