Effective compounds in the fruit of Muntingia calabura Linn. cultivated in Taiwan evaluated with scavenging free radicals and suppressing LDL oxidation
Scavenging effect of 2,2-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radicals, inhibitory effect of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and phenolic contents were used for the activity-guided separation to identify the effective compounds of Muntingia calabura Linn. fruit. Its ethanol extract with higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities was subjected to silica gel column chromatographic separation, which was sequentially eluted with n-hexane, 10–90% ethyl acetate (EA) in n-hexane, EA, EA/acetone (50/50, v/v), acetone, acetone/methanol (MeOH) (50/50, v/v), and MeOH; fifteen fractions (Fr. 1–15) were obtained. Fractions 13 and 14 with better antioxidant effects were mixed followed by purification of the effective compounds using HPLC. Two major compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester through high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Their amounts in the fruit were 3.76 and 4.62 mg g−1. This study is the first report to clarify the effective antioxidant compounds of M. calabura Linn. fruit.