Strength, character, and directionality of halogen bonds involving cationic halogen bond donors
Halogen bonds involving cationic halogen bond donors and anionic halogen bond acceptors have recently been recognized as being important in stabilizing the crystal structures of many salts. Theoretical characterization of these types of interactions, most importantly in terms of their directionality, has been limited. Here we generate high-quality symmetry adapted perturbation theory potential energy curves of a H3N–CC–Br+⋯Cl− model system in order to characterize halogen bonds involving charged species, in terms of contributions from electrostatics, exchange, induction, and dispersion, with special emphasis on analyzing contributions that are most responsible for the directionality of these interactions. It is found that, as in the case of neutral halogen bonds, exchange forces are important contributors to the directionality of charged halogen bonds, however, it is also found that induction effects, which contribute little to the stability and directionality of neutral halogen bonds, play a large role in the directionality of halogen bonds involving charged species. Potential energy curves based on the ωB97X-D/def2-TZVP/C-PCM method, which includes an implicit solvation model in order to mimic the effects of the crystal medium, are produced for both the H3N–CC–Br+⋯Cl− model system and for the 4-bromoanilinium⋯Cl− dimer, which is based on the real 4-bromoanilinium chloride salt, whose crystal structure has been determined experimentally. It is found that, within a crystal-like medium, charged halogen bond are significantly weaker than in the gas phase, having optimum interaction energies up to approximately −20 kcal mol−1.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Halogen Bonding in Supramolecular and Solid State Chemistry