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Issue 43, 2017
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Mechanistic exploration of the copper(I) phosphide synthesis in phosphonium-based and phosphorus-free ionic liquids

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Abstract

The mechanism of the synthesis of copper(I) phosphide (Cu3−xP) in the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P66614][Cl]) was investigated. The phosphide formation is promoted by a transformation of red phosphorus (Pred) into mobile P4 molecules and a surface activation of copper caused by the IL including the Brønsted acidic impurity. The surface activation is important to obtain a quantitative product yield. Moreover, we demonstrate that single-phase Cu3−xP can also be synthesized in the nitrogen-based IL tetrabutylammonium chloride ([N4444][Cl]). Further substitution of the anion of the IL using tetrabutylammonium bromide ([N4444][Br]) or the complete replacement of the IL by a deep eutectic solvent consisting of adipic acid and betaine do not lead to single-phase Cu3−xP. Therefore, the nature of the anions present in the IL also seems to be relevant for the convenient phosphidization reaction.

Graphical abstract: Mechanistic exploration of the copper(i) phosphide synthesis in phosphonium-based and phosphorus-free ionic liquids

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Aug 2017, accepted on 28 Sep 2017 and first published on 20 Oct 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7DT03083E
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2017,46, 15004-15011
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    Mechanistic exploration of the copper(I) phosphide synthesis in phosphonium-based and phosphorus-free ionic liquids

    M. Lê Anh, A. Wolff, M. Kaiser, S. Yogendra, J. J. Weigand, J. Pallmann, E. Brunner, M. Ruck and T. Doert, Dalton Trans., 2017, 46, 15004
    DOI: 10.1039/C7DT03083E

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