Platinum nanoparticles in nanobiomedicine
Oxidative stress-dependent inflammatory diseases represent a major concern for the population's health worldwide. Biocompatible nanomaterials with enzymatic properties could play a crucial role in the treatment of such pathologies. In this respect, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) are promising candidates, showing remarkable catalytic activity, able to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and impair the downstream pathways leading to inflammation. This review reports a critical overview of the growing evidence revealing the anti-inflammatory ability of PtNPs and their potential applications in nanomedicine. It provides a detailed description of the wide variety of synthetic methods recently developed, with particular attention to the aspects influencing biocompatibility. Special attention has been paid to the studies describing the toxicological profile of PtNPs with an attempt to draw critical conclusions. The emerging picture suggests that the material per se is not causing cytotoxicity, while other physicochemical features related to the synthesis and surface functionalization may play a crucial role in determining the observed impairment of cellular functions. The enzymatic activity of PtNPs is also summarized, analyzing their action against ROS produced by pathological conditions within the cells. In particular, we extensively discuss the potential of these properties in nanomedicine to down-regulate inflammatory pathways or to be employed as diagnostic tools with colorimetric readout. A brief overview of other biomedical applications of nanoplatinum is also presented.