Black phosphorus nanostructures: recent advances in hybridization, doping and functionalization
Owing to its high charge-carrier mobility, tunable direct-bandgap and unique in-plane anisotropic structure, black phosphorus (BP), a rising star of post-graphene two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, has been intensively investigated since early 2014. To explore its full potential and push the limits, research into BP-based novel functional nanostructures (i.e., nanomaterials and nanodevices) by means of hybridization, doping, and functionalization is rapidly expanding. Indeed, the cutting-edge developments and applications of BP nanostructures have had a significant impact on a wide range of research areas, including field effect transistors, diodes, photodetectors, biomedicine, sodium-ion batteries, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, memory devices, and more. This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances of BP nanostructures and outlines the future challenges and opportunities.