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Issue 96, 2017
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Molecular photosensitisers for two-photon photodynamic therapy

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Two-photon excitation has attracted the attention of biologists, especially after the development of two-photon excited microscopy in the nineties. Since then, new applications have rapidly emerged such as the release of biologically active molecules and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using two-photon excitation. PDT, which requires a light-activated drug (photosensitiser), is a clinically approved and minimally invasive treatment for cancer and for non-malignant diseases. This feature article focuses on the engineering of molecular two-photon photosensitisers for PDT, which should bring important benefits to the treatment, increase the treatment penetration depth with near-infrared light excitation, improve the spatial selectivity and reduce the photodamage to healthy tissues. After an overview of the two-photon absorption phenomenon and the methods to evaluate two-photon induced phototoxicity on cell cultures, the different classes of photosensitisers described in the literature are discussed. The two-photon PDT performed with historical one-photon sensitisers are briefly presented, followed by specifically engineered cyclic tetrapyrrole photosensitisers, purely organic photosensitisers and transition metal complexes. Finally, targeted two-photon photosensitisers and theranostic agents that should enhance the selectivity and efficiency of the treatment are discussed.

Graphical abstract: Molecular photosensitisers for two-photon photodynamic therapy

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Publication details

The article was received on 05 Aug 2017, accepted on 27 Oct 2017 and first published on 27 Oct 2017

Article type: Feature Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC06133A
Citation: Chem. Commun., 2017,53, 12857-12877
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    Molecular photosensitisers for two-photon photodynamic therapy

    F. Bolze, S. Jenni, A. Sour and V. Heitz, Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 12857
    DOI: 10.1039/C7CC06133A

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